Proximate Compositions and Biological Activities of Caulerpa lentillifera

Full Text
Risa Nofiani, Sigit Hertanto, Titin Anita Zaharah, Sutarman Gafur


Caulerpa lentillifera is an edible and functional seaweed due to its high nutritional compositions and its biological activities.  In this study, C. lentillifera was evaluated for its proximate compositions (moisture, ash, protein, lipid and fiber contents) and its biological activities (antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and toxicity). Moisture content, crude lipid, crude protein, and crude fiber were determined using oven method, soxhlet extraction, semi-micro Kjeldhal, and hydrolysis, respectively.  Fresh C. lentillifera of Natuna Island, Indonesia, showed its higher level content of ash, crude lipid, and crude fiber compared to that of fresh C. lentillifera of Penghu, Taiwan.  For its biological activity assays, the extracts were prepared from fresh and dry C. lentillifera (FC and DC).  Both of the extracts showed the broad spectrum of weak antimicrobial using well-diffusion agar tests and antioxidant activities using a modified linoleic acid emulsion system.  The toxicity for both extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test.  DC extract showed its very low toxicity level and there was no toxicity for FC.  Hemolytic activity was determined using red blood assay.  Both extracts showed their low hemolytic activities (about 5-13%) for the concentration of 100 and 150 μg/mL, but the activity increased sharply (about 96%) on the concentration of 200 μg/mL.  It was concluded that C. lentillifera has a potency as a functional food due to containing secondary metabolites with various biological activities.


Caulerpa lentillifera, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, toxicity, hemolysis, proximate composition


Abbot, W. . (1925). A Method of Computing The Effectiveness of An Insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18(2), 265–267.

Bhuiyan, M. K. A., Qureshi, S., Kamal, A. H. M., Aftab, U. S., & Siddique, M. A. M. (2016). Proximate Chemical Composition of Sea Grapes Caulerpa racemosa (J . Agardh , 1873) Collected from a Sub-Tropical Coast. Virology and Mycology, 5(2).

Bonev, B., Hooper, J., & Parisot, J. (2008). Principles of assessing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics using the agar diffusion method. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(March), 1295–1301.

Daud, D., Fazuliana, N. U. R., Arsad, M., Ismail, A., & Tawang, A. (2016). Anti-pyreticc Action of Caulerpa lentillifera, Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis, and Piper Sarmentosum Aqueous Extract in Mice. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 9(1), 9–11.

Djouossi, M. G., Tamokou, J., Ngnokam, D., Kuiate, J., Tapondjou, L. A., Harakat, D., & Voutquenne-nazabadioko, L. (2015). Antimicrobial and antioxidant flavonoids from the leaves of Oncoba spinosa Forssk. (Salicaceae). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 4–11.

Doty, S. M. (1966). Caulerpicin, a Toxic Constituent of Caulerpa. Nature, 211, 990.

Doty, S. M., & Aguilar-santos, G. (1970). Transfer of Toxic Algal Substances in Marine Food Chains. Pacific Science, 24, 351–355.

Dumay, O., Erard, G., Pergent-martini, C., & Amade, P. (2002). Variations in Caulerpenyne Contents in Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28(2), 343–352.

Freile-pelegrin, Y., & Morales, J. L. (2004). Antibacterial activity in marine algae from the coast of Yucatan , Mexico. Botanica Marina, 47, 140–146.

Ito, K., & Hori, K. (2009). Seaweed : Chemical composition and potential food uses. Food Reviews International, 5(1), 101–144.

Kılınç, B., Cirik, S., & Turan, G. (2013). Seaweeds for Food and Industrial Applications. In Food Industry (pp. 735–748). INTECH.

Kokoska, S. (2015). Introductory Statistics: A Problem-Solving Approach (Second). New York: W.H Freeman and Company.

Loganayaki, N., Siddhuraju, P., & Manian, S. (2013). Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L . and Ceiba pentandra L. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50(4), 687–695.

Matanjun, P., Mohamed, S., Mustapha, N. M., & Muhammad Kharidah. (2009). Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds , Eucheuma cottonii , Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal of Applied Phycology, 21, 75–80.

Mbwambo, Z. H., Moshi, M. J., Masimba, P. J., Kapingu, M. C., & Nondo, R. S. O. (2007). Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7(9), 5–9.

Meyer, B. N., Ferrigni, N. A., Putnam, J. E., Jacobsen, L. B., Nichols, D. E., & Mclaughlin, J. L. (1982). Brine Shrimp : A Convenient General Bioassay for Active Plant Constituents. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 45, 31–34.

Mohamed, S., Hashim, S. N., & Rahman, A. (2012). Seaweeds : A sustainable functional food for complementary and alternative therapy. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 23(2), 83–96.

Nguyen, T. Van, Ueng, J.-P., & Tsai, G.-J. (2011). Proximate Composition , Total Phenolic Content , and Antioxidant Activity of Seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera). Journal of Food Science, 76(November), C950-c958.

Okeke, M. ., Iroegbu, C. ., Eze, E. ., Okoli, A. ., & Esimone, C. . (2001). Evaluation of extracts of root of Landonphin owerrience for antibacterial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 78, 119–127.

Paul, J. V., Littler, M. M., Littler, S. D., & Fenical, W. (1987). Evidence for Chemical Defense in Tropical Green Alga Caulerpa ashmeadii ( Caulerpacease:Chlorophyta): Isolation of New Bioactive Sesquiterpenoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 13(5), 1171–1185.

Ratana-arporn, P., & Chirapart, A. (2006). Nutritional Evaluation of Tropical Green Seaweeds Caulerpa lentillifera and Ulva reticulata. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci), 40(September), 75–83.

Saengkhae, C., Arunnopparat, W., & Sungkhajorn, P. (2007). Antioxidative Activity of the Leaf of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn . on Oxidative Stress-Induced Erythrocyte Hemolysis in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats. Thai Journal of Physiological Sciences, 20(2), 70–78.

Singh, R. P., & Kaur, G. (2008). Hemolytic activity of aqueous extract of Livistona chinensis fruits. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 553–556.

Situ, H., & Bobek, A. L. (2000). In Vitro Assessment of Antifungal Therapeutic Potential of Salivary Histatin-5, Two Variants of Histatin-5, and Salivary Mucin ( MUC7 ) Domain 1. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotheraphy, 44(6), 1485–1493.

Sonibare, A. A. A. M. A. (2017). In vitro antioxidant activity , brine shrimp lethality and assessment of bioactive constituents of three wild Dioscorea species. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11(2), 685–695.

Zohra, M., & Fawzia, A. (2014). Hemolytic activity of different herbal extracts used in Algeria. International Journal of Pharma Science and Research, 5(08), 495–500.


Metric logoArticle Metrics

This article has been viewed: 1519 (times)
PDF file viewed / downloaded: 1067 (times)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Molekul

Logo Unsoed


Jurnal Ilmiah Kimia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.